Last year, the company sold 30,000 of these balls, with the following results:
Sales (30,000 balls)  750,000 
Variable expenses  450,000 
Contribution margin  300,000 
Fixed expenses  210,000 
Net operating income  90,000 
Required:
 Compute (a) last year’s CM ratio and the breakeven point in balls, and (b) the degree of operating leverage at last year’s sales level.
 Due to an increase in labor rates, the company estimates that next year’s variable expenses will increase by $3 per ball. If this change takes place and the selling price per ball remains constant at $25, what will be next year’s CM ratio and the breakeven point in balls?
 Refer to the data in (2) above. If the expected change in variable expenses takes place, how many balls will have to be sold next year to earn the same net operating income, $90,000, as last year?
 Refer again to the data in (2) above. The president feels that the company must raise the selling price of its basketballs. If Northwood Company wants to maintain the same CM ratio as last year (as computed in requirement 1a), what selling price per ball must it charge next year to cover the increased labor costs?
 Refer to the original data. The company is discussing the construction of a new, automated manufacturing plant. The new plant would slash variable expenses per ball by 40%, but it would cause fixed expenses per year to double. If the new plant is built, what would be the company’s new CM ratio and new breakeven point in balls?
 Refer to the data in (5) above.
 If the new plant is built, how many balls will have to be sold next year to earn the same net operating income, $90,000, as last year?
 Assume the new plant is built and that next year the company manufactures and sells 30,000 balls (the same number as sold last year). Prepare a contribution format income statement and compute the degree of operating leverage.
Solution
 Compute (a) last year’s CM ratio and the breakeven point in balls, and (b) the degree of operating leverage at last year’s sales level. (Round “Degree of operating leverage” to 2 decimal places.)
CM ratio 40 % Unit sales to break even 21,000 balls Degree of operating leverage 3.33 1a.
Selling price 25 100 % Variable expenses 15 60 % Contribution margin 10 40 %
\text{Profit} &= \text{Unit CM} × \text{Q} \ – \ \text{Fixed expenses} \\[6pt] $0 &= $10 × \text{Q} \ − \ $210,000 \\[6pt] $10\text{Q} &= $210,000 \\[6pt] \text{Q} &= $210,000 \ ÷ \ $10 \\[6pt] \text{Q} &= 21{,}000 \ \text{balls}
\end{align*}\) 1b.
The degree of operating leverage is: \(\begin{align*}
\text{Degree of operating leverage} &= \frac{\text{Contribution margin}}{\text{Net operating income}} \\[6pt] &= \frac{$300{,}000}{$90{,}000} \quad = 3.33 \ \text{(rounded)}
\end{align*}\)  Due to an increase in labor rates, the company estimates that next year’s variable expenses will increase by $3 per ball. If this change takes place and the selling price per ball remains constant at $25, what will be next year’s CM ratio and the breakeven point in balls?
CM Ratio 28 % Unit sales to break even 30,000 balls Explanation
The new CM ratio will be:
Selling price 25 100 % Variable expenses 18 72 % Contribution margin 7 28% The new breakeven point will be:
\(\begin{align*}
\text{Profit} &= \text{Unit CM} × \text{Q} \ – \ \text{Fixed expenses} \\[6pt] $0 &= $7 × \text{Q} \ − \ $210{,}000 \\[6pt] $7\text{Q} &= $210{,}000 \\[6pt] \text{Q} &= $210{,}000 ÷ $7 \\[6pt] \text{Q} &= 30{,}000 \ \text{balls}
\end{align*}\)  Refer to the data in (2) above. If the expected change in variable expenses takes place, how many balls will have to be sold next year to earn the same net operating income, $90,000, as last year? (Round your answer to the nearest whole unit.)
Number of balls 42,857 Explanation
\(\begin{align*}
\text{Profit} &= \text{Unit CM} × \text{Q} \ – \ \text{Fixed expenses} \\[6pt] $90{,}000 &= $7 × \text{Q} \ − \ $210{,}000 \\[6pt] $7\text{Q} &= $90{,}000 + $210{,}000 \\[6pt] \text{Q} &= $300{,}000 ÷ $7 \\[6pt] \text{Q} &= 42{,}857 \ \text{balls (rounded)}
\end{align*}\)  Refer again to the data in (2) above. The president feels that the company must raise the selling price of its basketballs. If Northwood Company wants to maintain the same CM ratio as last year (as computed in requirement 1a), what selling price per ball must it charge next year to cover the increased labor costs?
Selling price 30 Explanation
The contribution margin ratio last year was 40%. If we let P equal the new selling price, then:
\(\begin{align*}
\text{P} &= $18 + 0.40\text{P} \\[6pt] 0.60\text{P} &= $18 \\[6pt] \text{P} &= $18 ÷ 0.60 \\[6pt] \text{P} &= $30
\end{align*}\)To verify: Selling price 30 100 % Variable expenses 18 60 % Contribution margin 12 40 % Therefore, to maintain a 40% CM ratio, a $3 increase in variable costs would require a $5 increase in the selling price.
 Refer to the original data. The company is discussing the construction of a new, automated manufacturing plant. The new plant would slash variable expenses per ball by 40%, but it would cause fixed expenses per year to double. If the new plant is built, what would be the company’s new CM ratio and new breakeven point in balls?
CM Ratio 64 % Unit sales to break even 26,250 balls Explanation
The new CM ratio would be:
Selling price 25 100 % Variable expenses 9* 36 % Contribution margin 16 64 % The new breakeven point would be:
\(\begin{align*}
\text{Profit} &= \text{Unit CM} × \text{Q} \ – \ \text{Fixed expenses} \\[6pt] $0 &= $16 × \text{Q} \ − \ ($210{,}000 × 2) \\[6pt] $16\text{Q} &= $420{,}000 \\[6pt] \text{Q} &= $420{,}000 ÷ $16 \\[6pt] \text{Q} &= 26{,}250 \ \text{balls}
\end{align*}\)  Refer to the data in (5) above.
 If the new plant is built, how many balls will have to be sold next year to earn the same net operating income, $90,000, as last year?
Number of balls 31,875 Solution
\(\begin{align*}
\text{Profit} &= \text{Unit CM} × \text{Q} \ – \ \text{Fixed expenses} \\[6pt] $90{,}000 &= $16 × \text{Q} \ − \ $420{,}000 \\[6pt] $16\text{Q} &= $90{,}000 + $420,000 \\[6pt] \text{Q} &= $510{,}000 ÷ $16 \\[6pt] \text{Q} &= 31{,}875 \ \text{balls}
\end{align*}\)  Assume the new plant is built and that next year the company manufactures and sells 30,000 balls (the same number as sold last year). Prepare a contribution format income statement and compute the degree of operating leverage.
Northwood Company Contribution Income Statement Sales 750,000 Variable expenses 270,000 Contribution margin 480,000 Fixed expenses 420,000 Net operating income 60,000 Degree of operating leverage 8 Solution
\( \text{Sales:} \ (30{,}000 \ \text{balls} × $25 \ \text{per ball}) = $750{,}000 \\[6pt] \text{Variable expenses:} \ (30{,}000 \ \text{balls} × $9 \ \text{per ball}) = $270{,}000 \\[6pt] \) \(\begin{align*}
\text{Degree of operating leverage} &= \frac{\text{Contribution margin}}{\text{Net operating income}} \\[6pt] &= \frac{$480{,}000}{$60{,}000} = 8
\end{align*}\)
 If the new plant is built, how many balls will have to be sold next year to earn the same net operating income, $90,000, as last year?
Product  

White  Fragrant  Loonzain  Total  
% of total sales  20 %  52 %  28 %  100 %  
Sales  150,000  100 %  390,000  100 %  210,000  100 %  750,000  100 % 
Variable expenses  108,000  72 %  78,000  20 %  84,000  40 %  270,000  36 % 
Contribution margin  42,000  28 %  312,000  80 %  126,000  60 %  480,000  64 % 
Fixed expenses  449,280  
Net operating income  30,720 
\) As shown by these data, net operating income is budgeted at $30,720 for the month and the estimated breakeven sales is $702,000.
Assume that actual sales for the month total $750,000 as planned; however, actual sales by product are: White, $300,000; Fragrant, $180,000; and Loonzain, $270,000.
Required:
 Prepare a contribution format income statement for the month based on the actual sales data.
 Compute the breakeven point in dollar sales for the month based on your actual data.
Solution
 Prepare a contribution format income statement for the month based on the actual sales data.
Gold Star Rice, Ltd. Contribution Income Statement Product White Fragrant Loonzain Total Percentage of total sales 40 % 24 % 36 % 100 % Sales 300,000 100 % 180,000 100 % 270,000 100 % 750,000 100 % Variable expenses 216,000 72 % 36,000 20 % 108,000 40 % 360,000 48 % Contribution margin 84,000 28 % 144,000 80 % 162,000 60 % 390,000 52 % Fixed expenses 449,280 Net operating loss (59,280) Total contribution margin: $390,000 ÷ $750,000 = 52%
 Compute the breakeven point in dollar sales for the month based on your actual data. (Do not round intermediate calculations.)
Breakeven point in dollar sales 864,000 Explanation
Breakeven sales would be:
\(\begin{align*}
\text{Dollar sales to break even} &= \frac{\text{Fixed expenses}}{\text{CM ratio}} \\[6pt] &= \frac{$449{,}280}{0.52} = $864{,}000
\end{align*}\)
Sales  400,000 
Variable expenses  160,000 
Contribution margin  240,000 
Fixed expenses  180,000 
Net operating income  60,000 
Required:
Answer each question independently based on the original data:
 What is the product’s CM ratio?
 Use the CM ratio to determine the breakeven point in dollar sales.
 Assume this year’s unit sales and total sales increase by 3,750 units and $75,000, respectively. If the fixed expenses do not change, how much will net operating income increase?

 What is the degree of operating leverage based on last year’s sales?
 Assume the president expects this year’s unit sales to increase by 20%. Using the degree of operating leverage from last year, what percentage increase in net operating income will the company realize this year?
 The sales manager is convinced that a 10% reduction in the selling price, combined with a $30,000 increase in advertising, would increase this year’s unit sales by 25%.
 If the sales manager is right, what would be this year’s net operating income if his ideas are implemented?
 If the sales manager’s ideas are implemented, how much will net operating income increase or decrease over last year?
 The president does not want to change the selling price. Instead, he wants to increase the sales commission by $1 per unit. He thinks that this move, combined with some increase in advertising, would increase this year’s unit sales by 25%. How much could the president increase this year’s advertising expense and still earn the same $60,000 net operating income as last year?
Solution
 What is the product’s CM ratio?
CM ratio 60 % Explanation
The CM ratio is 60%:
Sales price 20.00 100 % Variable expenses 8.00 40 % Contribution margin 12.00 60 %  Use the CM ratio to determine the breakeven point in dollar sales. (Do not round intermediate calculations.)
Breakeven point in dollar sales 300,000 Explanation
\(\begin{align*}
\text{Dollar sales to break even} &= \frac{\text{Fixed expenses}}{\text{CM ratio}} \\[6pt] &= \frac{$180{,}000}{0.60} = $300{,}000
\end{align*}\)  Assume this year’s unit sales and total sales increase by 3,750 units and $75,000, respectively. If the fixed expenses do not change, how much will net operating income increase?
Net operating income increases by 45,000 Explanation
$75,000 increased sales × 0.60 CM ratio = $45,000 increased contribution margin. Because the fixed costs will not change, net operating income should also increase by $45,000.

 What is the degree of operating leverage based on last year’s sales?
Degree of operating leverage 4 Explanation
The degree of operating leverage is calculated as follows:
\(\begin{align*}
\text{Degree of operating leverage} &= \frac{\text{Contribution margin}}{\text{Net operating income}} \\[6pt] &= \frac{$240{,}000}{$60{,}000} \\[6pt] &= 4
\end{align*}\)  Assume the president expects this year’s unit sales to increase by 20%. Using the degree of operating leverage from last year, what percentage increase in net operating income will the company realize this year?
Net operating income increases by 80 % Explanation
4 × 20% = 80% increase in net operating income. In dollars, this increase would be 80% × $60,000 = $48,000.
 What is the degree of operating leverage based on last year’s sales?
 The sales manager is convinced that a 10% reduction in the selling price, combined with a $30,000 increase in advertising, would increase this year’s unit sales by 25%.
 If the sales manager is right, what would be this year’s net operating income if his ideas are implemented?
Net operating income (loss) 40,000 Explanation
Sales (25,000 units × $18 per unit) = $450,000
Variable expenses (25,000 units × $8 per unit) = $200,000
Fixed expenses ($180,000 + $30,000) = $210,000
Net operating income $450,000 – $200,000 – $210,000 = $40,000
 If the sales manager’s ideas are implemented, how much will net operating income increase or decrease over last year?
Increase (decrease) to net operating income (20,000) Explanation
The sales manager’s suggestions should not be implemented because they will lower net operating income by $20,000 (= $60,000 – $40,000).
 If the sales manager is right, what would be this year’s net operating income if his ideas are implemented?
 The president does not want to change the selling price. Instead, he wants to increase the sales commission by $1 per unit. He thinks that this move, combined with some increase in advertising, would increase this year’s unit sales by 25%. How much could the president increase this year’s advertising expense and still earn the same $60,000 net operating income as last year?
The amount by which advertising can be increased is 35,000 Expected total contribution margin: 20,000 units × 1.25 × $11.00 per unit* 275,000 Present total contribution margin 240,000 Incremental contribution margin, and the amount by which advertising can be increased with net operating income remaining unchanged 35,000 *$20.00 – ($8.00 + $1.00) = $11.00